Parts of Speech

·            NOUN - person, place, thing, quality, idea, or action

·            ARTICLE – Indefinite = a / an ; Definite = the

·            ADJECTIVE - describes a noun (includes in/definite articles)

·            VERB - an action word:

o       Transitive - action passes from doer to something else

o       Intransitive - action does not pass beyond the doer

o       Linking= Copulative = Verb of Being / Becoming - describes doer

·            ADVERB - describes actions or adjectives

·            PRONOUN - word which takes the place of a noun:

o       personal (I, you, they…), relative (who, which…), indefinite (some, any…), interrogative (who? which?...)

·            PREPOSITION - relates a noun or phrase (= Object of Preposition) to something else

·            CONJUNCTION - connects words, phrases, or sentences:

o       coordinating (and, or, but), subordinating (since, when, because…)

·            PARTICLE - an interjection (however, therefore…)


Parts of a Sentence - each sentence needs at least a subject and a main verb

·            SUBJECT - a noun, pronoun, or substantive (a substantive is a phrase or clause which functions as a noun)

·            PREDICATE/MAIN VERB - states the action related to the subject

·            DIRECT OBJECT - a noun, pronoun, or subst which receives the action of a transitive verb                                                                

·            INDIRECT OBJECT - secondary recipient of action of transitive verb

·            PREDICATE NOMINATIVE - noun, pronoun, or substantive identifying the subject of linking verb

·            PREDICATE ADJECTIVE - adjective which describes subject of linking verb


Analysis of Nouns

·            GENDER - masculine, feminine, neuter

·            NUMBER - singular, plural

·            CASE - Nominative: Subject, Predicate Nominative, Predicate Adjective

o       Genitive: relationship (possession), definition, description

o       Dative: Indirect Object, location, instrumental

o       Accusative: Direct Object, reference, manner, subject of infinitive

o       Vocative: used in direct address

(in Greek, case and number are indicated by Inflection of the word which follows a Declensional pattern)


Analysis of Verbs

·            TENSE: Present, Future, Imperfect, Aorist, Perfect, Pluperfect

·            VOICE: Active, Middle, Passive (Deponent)

·            MOOD: Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, Infinitive

·            PERSON: 1, 2, 3

·            NUMBER: singular, plural



·             Main / Independent (a complete thought containing both a subject and a predicate)

·            Subordinate / Dependent (an incomplete thought that depends on or is subordinate to a main clause to make sense)



·            Simple (= a main clause standing alone as a sentence)

·            Coordinating (= two or more simple sentences joined by coordinating conjunction)

·            Complex (= simple sentence modified by one or more subordinate clauses)


MGVH – 4/2003